Home Fleet (Royal Navy)

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The Home Fleet was one of the main fleets of the Royal Navy in British waters at various times of the Twentieth Century. It was created from Coastguard and Port Guard ships in reserve in 1902, became an independent command in 1903, before being renamed the Channel Fleet. A new Home Fleet was created in 1907, based on the Home Ports, and it gradually grew larger and large: in 1909 it absorbed the Channel Fleet, being reorganised into divisions based on the manning status of its ships: In 1912 it absorbed the Atlantic Fleet, and, renamed the Home Fleets, it was the primary British fleet facing the Germans when war began in 1914. For a very brief period in 1919, warships with nucleus crews formed part of a Home Fleet. In 1932 the chief command, the Atlantic Fleet, was renamed the Home Fleet.

Contents

A Seagoing Home Fleet, 1902-1904

At the turn of the Twentieth Century, the principal naval force in home waters was the Channel Squadron. The other main naval force consisted of partially-manned Coastguard vessels and Port Guard ships under the Admiral Superintendent of Naval Reserves (A.S.N.R.). These vessels rarely exercised in company, but when they did were known as either the Coast Guard Squadron or the Reserve Squadron.[1] In September, 1900, the A.S.N.R., Sir Gerard H. U. Noel, proposed taking the fully-manned Coastguard ships for an annual cruise "to carry out evolutions and gunnery and torpedo exercises in company." The Senior Naval Lord, Lord Walter Kerr, approved the proposal and added that such manœuvres should take place three times a year along with the Port Guard ships. In December, where possible within the existing training arrangements, service in the Coast Guard ships was increased to two years, with not more than a quarter of the crew rotated every six months, to help prevent a destabilising turnover in personnel.[2]

In March, 1902, Noel complained to the Admiralty that his command was being referred to as the Reserve Squadron, and he proposed it be renamed "Home Squadron." The Director of Naval Intelligence, Reginald N. Custance, minuted that, "On the outbreak of war the Coast Guard and Port Guard ships would form the nucleus of the Home Fleet. It is submitted that it would be advantageous to give them that name whenever they assemble for cruising." The Senior Naval Lord and First Lord approved. Lord Selborne also proposed that the Home Squadron be renamed the Channel Squadron, and that the existing Channel Squadron could be named the Atlantic Squadron, so that in the event of it being sent to reinforce the Mediterranean, the change of name might, in Selborne's words, "forestall a possible cry of popular grievance in time of war that the Channel Squadron ought to stay at home instead of going to the Mediterranean as the Admiralty of the day might very probably wish to send it."[3] Custance partially agreed, writing that naming the reserve squadron the Home Fleet "would seem to partially disarm those who might try to retain the Channel Squadron at home on account of the name."[4]

A key matter of discussion was how the Home Squadron, which Kerr considered "more important in some respects than the Channel Squadron," was to be made as efficient as possible, when its commander divided his time between his duties afloat and his duties as A.S.N.R.[5] On 17 May, 1902, Kerr submitted his proposals. The Home Squadron was to be renamed the Home Fleet, and come under the command of a Commander-in-Chief. The nucleus of the Fleet would be the four Port Guard ships, called the Home Squadron. The Coastguard ships continued to be District drill ships, but would go to sea with the Home Squadron at least three times a year, the whole being called the Home Fleet. It was planned that the Commander-in-Chief would be senior to the officer in command of the Channel Squadron, ensuring that the Home Fleet became the chief command in Home Waters.[6]

Noel was informed that from 1 October, 1902 to the end of his tenure as A.S.N.R. he would have command of the Home Fleet. The Home Squadron would form the nucleus of the Home Fleet and would cruise continuously under the Second-in-Command, Rear-Admiral George L. Atkinson-Willes, with his flag in the Empress of India. When the Home Fleet assembled, the Vice-Admiral had under his command the Cruiser Squadron, the Coastguard ships, and the Inspecting Captain of Torpedo Boat Destroyers.[7]

In 1903 the Fleet in Home waters was reorganised, and the command of the Home Fleet was divorced from that of the Naval Reserves. Accordingly, Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur K. Wilson was appointed in command.[8] He hoisted his flag in the Revenge on 21 May.[9] Rear-Admiral Edmund S. Poë had been appointed Second-in-Command on 8 May, 1903.[10] Rear-Admiral Charles J. Barlow succeeded Rear-Admiral Poë as Second-in-Command of the Home Fleet on 9 May, 1904.[11] He remained as Second-in-Command until 9 May, 1905.[12]

Under the terms of the Admiralty Memorandum of 6 December, 1904, the Home Fleet was renamed the Channel Fleet[13] on 1 January, 1905.[14]

From 1 January, 1904, command of destroyers in Home waters, previously vested in the Inspecting Captain of Torpedo Boat Destroyers, was given to the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet.[15] Accordingly, Captain Edward F. B. Charlton was appointed Captain (D) in the Home Fleet, dated 1 January.[16]

In a memorandum of 8 August, 1904, the D.N.I., Battenberg, suggested that the battleship strength of the Home Fleet might have to be increased permanently in combination with the Channel Squadron in order to give a sufficient margin over a combined German and French battle fleet. Lord Walter Kerr minuted, "This is hardly possible without increase of personnel or reductions elsewhere."[17]

A Reconstituted Home Fleet, 1907-1909

See: 1906 Orders Constituting the Home Fleet (Royal Navy).

In August, 1906, the Admiralty decided that:

The international situation is now such that the Mediterranean can be reduced, and the Atlantic Fleet regarded as primarily a reinforcing squadron for the main (Channel) Fleet. It also permits of some reduction for the Channel Fleet itself, provided the units composing it are of the most powerful character.[18]

The strategic reason offered by the Admiralty for putting the battleships in reserve was that a Channel Fleet with twenty-one fully manned battleships would constitute "a menace to Germany of the grossest description."[19] News of this proposal leaked when the First Sea Lord, Sir John Fisher, was on holiday in September-October. To quell the subsequent furore, Fisher then proposed that the battleships in reserve, along with four armoured cruisers, should form "a fresh 'Home Fleet'" based on the Nore and Dover.[20]

A new Home Fleet, based on Sheerness, was announced by the Admiralty on 24 October. Under the command of a flag officer with the status of a Commander-in-Chief, the fleet was to be formed out of the ships in commission in reserve.[21] On 30 October it was announced that the King had approved the appointment of Rear-Admiral Francis C. B. Bridgeman, lately Second-in-Command to Beresford in the Mediterranean, as Commander-in-Chief.[22]

The change in scale from the reserve formation envisaged by Fisher in October, 1906, to the fleet which was created at the beginning of 1907, is striking. As Prince Louis of Battenberg, Rear-Admiral Commanding, Second Cruiser Squadron, observed from Portland:

At first, no doubt, J.F. [Fisher] meant merely to improve the Reserve Fleet, but by degrees he has inverted the whole thing until we have now reached the stage where this Reserve Fleet of partially manned ships, is put forward as the force force for striking an instant blow in war, whilst the real fleet, trained by A. Wilson and W. May is relegated to the second place.

It is the intention of J.F. to form the Sheerness-Chatham Division of the Home Fleet of our eight best battleships [including the newest battleship, H.M.S. Dreadnought] …

In the Home Fleet we have a Rear-Admiral [Bridgeman], who has never experienced any independent command before, to command twenty-four battleships and Heaven knows how many cruisers, with four junior Flag Officers!

Where is the sense of this, even the sense of proportion? But more: Bridgeman is to have a Flag Officer, a Commodore, and about 160 torpedo-craft under his orders.[23]

Considering the original Admiralty excuse for putting seven battleships into reserve—that a fleet of twenty-one battleships would intimidate Germany—Fisher's plan to concentrate Britain's front-line naval strength into a new fleet primarily based on the North Sea seems absurd. As Battenberg commented, "It is simply topsy-turveydom and opposed to all our hitherto accepted principles."[24] Even accepting the necessity of weakening the Atlantic and Mediterranean Fleets by two battleships each, these battleships could have either been absorbed by the existing reserve divisions at the Home Ports, or used to strengthen the Channel Fleet. Fisher chose neither of these courses, and he must have been aware that creating the Home Fleet would only create controversy both at home and abroad. The appointment of Bridgeman as Commander-in-Chief, a Rear-Admiral until February, 1907, can only be construed as a slap in the face to Beresford, who had written of his late Second-in-Command, "will make a brilliant C-in-C."[25] Bridgeman's lack of seniority however meant that Beresford would be the senior officer in Home Waters.

On 17 December it was announced that Admiralty House, Sheerness, would become the residence of the Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet, after the Commander-in-Chief at the Nore vacated it on 1 January, 1907.[26] Fisher was moved to write to Bridgeman on 26 January:

Evan-Thomas has just told me that he thinks you would like an assurance from me that the Nore Division of the Home Fleet and all its accessories will be fully manned as if mobilised for war and kept so, and also that the phrase being ready at an hour's notice means of course only such a state of readiness as that of any seagoing Fleet and does not mean that steam is always to be up and no leave given ever to Officers or crews. Anyhow, please take it from me that on your arrival home any mortal thing you want will be granted to the utmost of the ability of the First Sea Lord. As I said to you the other day — Rome wasn't built in a day, nor will the Home Fleet attain perfection until May 1908.[27]

Vice-Admiral Bridgeman hoisted his flag in the battleship Majestic at Sheerness at 09:00 on 5 March, 1907.[28] Bridgeman's flag was transferred to the Dreadnought at Portsmouth on 29 April.[29] On 10 January, 1908 Captain the Hon. Alexander E. Bethell was appointed Chief of Staff to Bridgeman.[30] On 17 February, 1909, Rear-Admiral T. H. Martyn Jerram was appointed to Dreadnought as Chief of the Staff responsible for ships with nucleus crews.[31]

Portsmouth Division

Rear-Admiral Spencer H. M. Login of the Portsmouth Reserve Division was succeeded by Rear-Admiral Arthur M. Farquhar on 15 November, 1907.[32] Rear-Admiral Paul W. Bush succeeded Farquhar on 16 November, 1908.[33]

Plymouth Division

On 3 January, 1907 Rear-Admiral Harry S. F. Niblett succeeded Rear-Admiral Gamble in command of the Devonport Division of the Home Fleet.[34] He was succeeded by Rear-Admiral John Denison on 3 January, 1908.[35] Rear-Admiral Cecil Burney relieved Denison on 4 January, 1909.[36]

Chatham-Sheerness Division

Rear-Admiral Frank Finnis succeeded Adair as Rear-Admiral in the Home Fleet in the Nore Division on 3 January, 1907.[34] Rear-Admiral the Hon. Stanley C. J. Colville succeeded Finnis on 3 January, 1908, hoisting his flag at Chatham.[37] Colville was superseded on 4 January, 1909[38] by Rear-Admiral Charles J. Briggs.[39]

Destroyers

It had been decided in 1906 that on 5 March, 1907, the Rear-Admiral Commanding, Torpedo Craft and Submarine Flotillas would come under the orders of the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet.[40] On 5 March Captain Lewis Bayly was appointed Commodore, Second Class in the Home Fleet in command of destroyers in full commission in home waters, under the orders of the Rear-Admiral Command Torpedo Craft.[41][42] At the end of August, 1907 the Second and Fourth Destroyer Flotillas and the Home Fleet flotillas under Commodore Bayly ceased to be the responsibility of the Rear-Admiral Commanding Torpedo Boats, by this time Robert A. J. Montgomerie, who with the First and Third Flotillas was transferred to the Channel Fleet.[43] Rear-Admiral Montgomerie consequently became Rear-Admiral (D) in the Channel Fleet.[44] Bayly was superseded by Captain Edward F. B. Charlton as Commodore (T) on 27 November, 1908.[45]

The Home Fleet Expands, 1909-1912

In the Statement Explanatory of the Navy Estimates, 1909—1910 issued on 12 March, 1909, a redistribution of the Royal Navy in home waters was announced. The Channel Fleet was absorbed into the Home Fleet, making for a total of sixteen fully-manned battleships divided into two divisions, each division being associated with a cruiser squadron of five armoured cruisers. Also attached to the two fully manned divisions were ten cruisers and scouts and forty-eight destroyers. The remainder of nucleus-crew vessels were organised into the Third and Fourth Divisions, under a Vice-Admiral. The Atlantic Fleet continued to be an independent command, with six battleships and a cruiser squadron.[46]

Commanders-in-Chief

On 24 March, 1909, Vice-Admiral Sir William H. May succeeded Bridgeman as Commander-in-Chief.[47] Bridgeman took command of the Home Fleet on 25 March, 1911, flying his flag in the Bellerophon.[48] Sir George A. Callaghan assumed command of the Home Fleet with the rank of Acting Admiral on 5 December, 1911,[49] hoisting his flag in the battleship Hercules at Portland.[50]

Staff

The appointment of Captain of the Fleet was revived in 1909, "with the object of relieving the Commander-in-Chief of some of the more routine duties of his office."[51] Captain A. Gordon H. W. Moore was appointed on 30 July with the rank of Commodore, First Class.[52] He was succeeded on 16 December by The Hon. Somerset A. Gough-Calthorpe. William O. Boothby superseded Gough-Calthorpe on 25 March, 1911.[53]

Rear-Admirals in the First Division

With the reorganisation of the fleets in home waters in early 1909, the forces at the Nore essentially became the First Division, and Rear-Admiral Charles J. Briggs assumed the title of Rear-Admiral in the First Division. Briggs transferred his duties to Rear-Admiral F. C. Doveton Sturdee on 5 January, 1910.[54] Rear-Admiral Richard H. Peirse succeeded Rear-Admiral Sturdee on 5 January, 1911.[55] Rear-Admiral Charles E. Madden succeeded Peirse on 5 January, 1912, hoisting his flag in the dreadnought St. Vincent.[56]

Second Division

Vice-Admirals Commanding

Vice-Admiral Sir Berkeley Milne, previously Second-in-Command of the Channel Fleet, became Vice-Admiral Commanding the Second Division of the Home Fleet on 24 March, 1909.[57] Rear-Admiral James Startin, Rear-Admiral in the Channel Fleet, became Rear-Admiral in the Second Division.[58] Rear-Admiral Edward E. Bradford was appointed Rear-Admiral in the Second Division on 9 October, 1909.[59] Milne was succeeded as Vice-Admiral Commanding on 9 August, 1910 by Vice-Admiral Sir George A. Callaghan.[49] Bradford was superseded on 19 October, 1910 by Rear-Admiral George E. Patey.[60] Patey was succeeded by Rear-Admiral Herbert G. King Hall on 19 October, 1911.[61] Vice-Admiral Sir John R. Jellicoe was appointed Vice-Admiral Commanding the Second Division on 19 December, 1911.[62]

Third and Fourth Divisions

On 24 March, 1909, Vice-Admiral George Neville hoisted his flag in the Magnificent at Sheerness as Vice-Admiral Commanding, Third and Fourth Divisions of the Home Fleet.[63] Rear-Admiral Jerram was appointed Rear-Admiral on the staff of the Vice-Admiral Commanding the Third and Fourth Divisions.[64] He was succeeded by Rear-Admiral W. Lowther Grant on 9 August, 1910.[65] Vice-Admiral Prince Louis of Battenberg relieved Neville in command of the Third and Fourth Divisions on 24 March, 1911 at Sheerness.[66]

In 1912, when complaining to the then First Lord (Churchill) about a fleet commander being expected to superintend a division, Battenberg recalled that:

…soon after I assumed command of the 3rd and 4th Divs. I was allowed by F.L. [First Lord, McKenna] to make a change on the above basis. I found the big ships divided into 3 principal groups at the 3 Home Ports. The one at Plymouth was under a Rear-Admiral, and so was the one at Portsmouth, but the one at Chatham-Sheerness was supposed to be under my personal charge; consequently, as regarded this group, I was expected to do the work of a junior Rear-Admiral. Luckily, I had at hand a spare Rear-Admiral [Grant], who was supposed to act as my deputy for the whole command, whenever I was absent. I gave him charge of the Chatham-Sheerness group & the arrangement proved a great success.[67]

Rear-Admiral Charles H. Dundas of Dundas succeeded Rear-Admiral Grant as Rear-Admiral for special service with Prince Louis of Battenberg on 2 November, 1911.[68] Acting Vice-Admiral Frederick T. Hamilton succeeded Battenberg in command of the Third and Fourth Divisions of the fleet at Sheerness on 5 December, 1911.[50]

Destroyers

The Channel Fleet Destroyer Flotilla was absorbed into the Home Fleet as the Second Destroyer Flotilla in 1909.[Inference] Commodore (T) Charlton was succeeded by Captain Sir Robert K. Arbuthnot, Bart. on 6 December, 1910.[69]

Portsmouth Division

Rear-Admiral Bush was relieved by Rear-Admiral Frederic E. E. Brock on 17 November, 1909.[70] Rear-Admiral Arthur H. Limpus succeeded Brock on 10 November, 1910.[71] He was succeeded by Rear-Admiral Arthur Y. Moggridge on 17 November, 1911.[72]

Devonport Division

Rear-Admiral Arthur A. C. Galloway succeeded Rear-Admiral Burney on 5 January, 1910.[73] Rear-Admiral Richard B. Farquhar took command on 5 January, 1911.[74] On 5 January, 1912 Rear-Admiral Henry Loftus Tottenham succeeded Rear-Admiral Farquhar, hoisting his flag in the King Alfred on 6 January.[75]

Chatham-Sheerness Division

Rear-Admiral Briggs was relieved on 5 January, 1910.[76] With the reorganisation of the Home Fleet in March, 1909, Briggs became Rear-Admiral in the First Division of the Home Fleet.[77]

A Post-War Home Fleet, 1919

With the dispersal of the Grand Fleet on 7 April, 1919, the fleet in home waters was divided between a new Atlantic Fleet consisting of the most powerful naval units, and a Home Fleet consisting of ships with nucleus crews and other vessels at the Home Ports. On 8 April Admiral Sir Charles E. Madden became Commander-in-Chief, Home and Atlantic Fleets, and Vice-Admiral Sir Henry F. Oliver was appointed in command of the Home Fleet. Rear-Admiral Sir Douglas R. L. Nicholson was appointed Rear-Admiral Commanding, Third Battle Squadron in the Home Fleet.[78][79] The Home Fleet then consisted of the Third Battle Squadron of six ships, and the Fourth and Fifth Destroyer Flotillas totalling thirty-five destroyers and leaders. This arrangement lasted until 1 October, when the Fleet was reduced to a reserve basis, and "Home Fleet" was dropped from the Commander-in-Chief's title.[80][81] On 1 November Vice-Admiral Oliver's title was changed to Vice-Admiral Commanding, Reserve Fleet (V.A.R.F.).[82]

See Also

Footnotes

  1. Seligmann. The Creation of the Home Fleet. [Seligmann.] p. 508.
  2. Seligmann. p. 509.
  3. Seligmann. p. 510.
  4. Seligmann. p. 511.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Seligmann. pp. 511-512.
  7. Admiralty letter M.0375 of 30 July, 1902. The National Archives. ADM 1/7600. Copy courtesy of Dr. Matthew Selligman.
  8. "Important Naval Appointments" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 20 February, 1903. Issue 37073, col E, p. 12.
  9. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 22 May, 1903. Issue 37087, col A, p. 9.
  10. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 6 May, 1903. Issue 37073, col E, p. 12.
  11. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 10 May, 1904. Issue 37390, col C, p. 11.
  12. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 26 April, 1905. Issue 37691, col B, p. 8.
  13. Bradford. The Life of Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur Knyvet Wilson. p. 197.
  14. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Saturday, 24 October, 1908. Issue 38786, col E, p. 11.
  15. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 17 December, 1903. Issue 37266, col B, p. 6.
  16. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 4 December, 1903. Issue 37255, col B, p. 4.
  17. Marder. Anatomy of British Sea Power. pp. 495-496.
  18. Admiral to the Commander-in-Chief, H.M. Ships & Vessels, Channel Fleet. 18 August, 1906. The National Archives. ADM 144/17. f. 337.
  19. Admiralty Policy: Replies to Criticism, October, 1906. Quoted in Mackay. Fisher of Kilverstone. p. 360.
  20. Mackay. Fisher of Kilverstone. pp. 361-362.
  21. "Redistribution of Naval Strength" (News). The Times. Wednesday, 24 October, 1906. Issue 38159, col A, p. 11.
  22. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 30 October, 1906. Issue 38164, col A, p. 12.
  23. Quoted in Mackay. Fisher of Kilverstone. p. 362.
  24. Quoted in Mackay. Fisher of Kilverstone. p. 361.
  25. Bridgeman Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/86. f. 171.
  26. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 17 December, 1906. Issue 38205, col D, p. 10.
  27. Letter of 26 January, 1907. "Miscellaneous Papers dealing with the antagonism of Admiral Lord Charles Beresford to the Policy and Administrative Arrangements of the Board of Admiralty 1906-1909." The National Archives. ADM 116/3108.
  28. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 6 March, 1907. Issue 38273, col B, p. 11.
  29. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 30 April, 1907. Issue 38320, col B, p. 12.
  30. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Saturday, 21 December, 1907. Issue 38522, col B, p. 10.
  31. Jerram Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 692.
  32. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 14 November, 1907. Issue 38490, col D, p. 11.
  33. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Saturday, 14 November, 1908. Issue 38804, col B, p. 6.
  34. 34.0 34.1 "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 3 January, 1907. Issue 38220, col C, p. 4.
  35. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Saturday, 4 January, 1908. Issue 38534, col A, p. 9.
  36. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 5 January, 1909. Issue 38848, col D, p. 7.
  37. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 3 January, 1908. Issue 38533, col A, p. 4.
  38. Colville Service Record. ADM 196/42. f. 292.
  39. Briggs Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 168.
  40. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 11 December, 1906. Issue 38200, col F, p. 5.
  41. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 6 February, 1907. Issue 38249, col B, p. 6.
  42. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 5 March, 1907. Issue 38272, col A, p. 12.
  43. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 13 August, 1907. Issue 38410, col B, p. 10.
  44. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 25 November, 1907. Issue 38499, col C, p. 4.
  45. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 27 November, 1908. Issue 38815, col F, p. 6.
  46. "The Navy Estimates" (News). The Times. Saturday, 13 March, 1909. Issue 38906, col A, p. 7.
  47. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 24 March, 1909. Issue 38915, col B, p. 9.
  48. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 27 March, 1911. Issue 39543, col E, p. 4.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Callaghan Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 202.
  50. 50.0 50.1 "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 6 December, 1911. Issue 39761, col F, p. 14.
  51. Hansard. HC Deb 10 August 1909 vol 9 cc238-9.
  52. Moore Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 64.
  53. "Squadrons and Senior Naval Officers in Existence on 11th November, 1918, and Which Have Now Ceased to Exist." The National Archives. ADM 6/461. Unnumbered folio.
  54. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 6 January, 1911. Issue 39162, col D, p. 4.
  55. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 6 January, 1911. Issue 39475, col F, p. 3.
  56. "Naval Appointments" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 6 January, 1912. Issue 39787, col C, p. 4.
  57. Milne Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/39. f. 893.
  58. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 14 September, 1908. Issue 38751, col E, p. 6.
  59. Bradford Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 168.
  60. "Naval Commands Afloat" (News). The Times. Tuesday, 3 January, 1911. Issue 39472, col A, p. 5.
  61. "Naval Appointments" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 28 September, 1911. Issue 39702, col G, p. 10.
  62. Jellicoe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 693.
  63. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 25 March, 1909. Issue 38916, col B, p. 9.
  64. Jerram Service Record. p. 692.
  65. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 9 August, 1910. Issue 39346, col D, p. 7.
  66. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Saturday, 25 March, 1911. Issue 39542, col B, p. 7.
  67. Winston S. Churchill. Companion Volume II Part 3. p. 1502.
  68. "Naval Appointments" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 2 November, 1911. Issue 39732, col C, p. 4.
  69. Arbuthnot Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 202.
  70. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 17 November, 1909. Issue 39119, col C, p. 14.
  71. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 10 November, 1910. Issue 39426, col B, p. 7.
  72. "Naval Appointments" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Tuesday, 31 October, 1911. Issue 39730, col B, p. 14.
  73. Hazell's Annual, 1911. p. 191.
  74. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 6 January, 1911. Issue 39475, col F, p. 3.
  75. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Saturday, 6 January, 1912. Issue 39788, col F, p. 11.
  76. Briggs Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 168.
  77. "The Home and Atlantic Fleets" (News). The Times. Monday, 15 March, 1909. Issue 38907, col C, p. 9.
  78. "New Plans for the Fleet" (News). The Times. Saturday, 22 March, 1919. Issue 42055, col E, p. 12.
  79. "End of Grand Fleet" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 3 April, 1919. Issue 42065, col D, p. 13.
  80. "Navy Reductions" (News in Brief). The Times. Wednesday, 10 September, 1919. Issue 42201, col C, p. 10.
  81. "Admiral Madden's New Title" (News). The Times. Saturday, 27 September, 1919. Issue 42216, col C, p. 8.
  82. Oliver Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 187.

Bibliography

  • Bradford, Admiral Sir Edward E. (1923). Life of Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur Knyvet Wilson. London: John Murray.
  • Mackay, Ruddock F. (1973). Fisher of Kilverstone. London: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198224095.
  • Marder, Arthur J. (1964). The Anatomy of British Sea Power: A History of British Naval Policy in the Pre-Dreadnought Era, 1880—1905. London: Frank Cass & Co., Ltd.. (on Amazon.com and Amazon.co.uk).
  • Seligmann, Matthew S.. (August 2010). "A Prelude to the Reforms of Admiral Sir John Fisher: The Creation of the Home Fleet, 1902-1903". Historical Research 83 (221): pp. 506–519.

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