H.M.S. Canada (1913)

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H.M.S. Canada (1913)
Pendant Number: 28 (Aug 1914)
26 (Jan 1918)
01 (Apr 1918)[1]
Builder: Armstrong[2]
Laid down: 27 Nov, 1911
Launched: 27 Nov, 1913[3]
Requisitioned: Aug 1914[4]
Commissioned: 15 Aug, 1915
Sold: Apr, 1920[5]
Fate: to Chilean Navy

H.M.S. Canada was a dreadnought originally intended for sale to Chile as Almirante Latorre , but instead was placed into service in the Royal Navy. Her 14-inch main battery was unique in British Service.

Contents

Launch

Canada was launched as Almirante Latorre on 27 November, 1913 by Mme. Edwards, wife of the Chilean Minister.

Service

Canada was commissioned on 15 August, 1915, but her sailing for Scapa Flow was delayed until October.[6] She left Rosyth for Scapa at 16:00 on 14 October, screened by two destroyers of the First Destroyer Flotilla. She was met by a division of destroyers West of Stroma at 08:00 on 15 October, and proceeded to carry out gun trials off Tor Ness. She arrived at Scapa at 16:30.[7]

Jutland

Main article: H.M.S. Canada at the Battle of Jutland

Captains

Dates of appointment are provided when known.

Armament

Main Battery

This section is sourced from The Sight Manual, 1916.[15]

The ten 14-in 45 calibre Mark E guns were in twin mountings. In respects to their sights, Canada's main battery guns were similar to those of Tiger and the King George V and Iron Duke class dreadnoughts, except she would have had different range drums owing to her different guns.

The sights were limited to 15 degrees elevation, but 6 degree super-elevation prisms would have been provided by 1916. The deflection gearing constant was 61.3, with 1 knot equalling 2.51 arc minutes, calculated as 2500 fps at 5000 yards. Range drums were provided for full charge at 2450 fps, three-quarter charge at 2000 fps, as well as 3-pdr sub-calibre gun and .303-in aiming rifle. Muzzle velocity was corrected by adjustable scale plate between 2560 and 2260 fps. The adjustable temperature scale plate could vary between 40 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and a "C" corrector could alter the ballistic coefficient by +/- 20%.

The periscope holder was inclined 1 degree 37 minutes (which may have effectively been 2.5 degrees for mechanical reasons; it equalled .195 degrees at 10,000 yards).

The side sighting scopes were 44.5 inches above and 47 inches abreast the bore, and the central ones 51.6 inches above and 47 inches abreast.

By 1916, it was intended that she should receive O.O.Q. Open Director Sights capable of 20 degrees elevation.

Secondary Battery

  • twelve 6-in guns on P. XII mountings[16]

Torpedoes

Elswick 21-in side-loading tube[17]
  • four Elswick 6.3m 21-in submerged broadside tubes forward undepressed[Inference] and with forward pair bearing 80 (or 75[18]) and aft pair 100 (or 70[19]). Impulse from Elswick H.P. air.[20]

Her tubes fired a unique type of torpedo, a 21-in Mark II*** V.B., which seemed to cause her to miss out on an "increase of outfit, 21-inch broadside tubes" in 1916[21]

Torpedoes fired while at full speed (22-23 knots) from the forward tubes tended to bind in the spoons when first tested.[22]

Fire Control

Evershed Bearing Indicators

In 1917, it was approved that capital ships of Dreadnought class and later should have Evershed equipment added to their C.T., able to communicate with either the fore top or the G.C.T.. If there were not enough room in the C.T., a bearing plate with open sights and 6-power binoculars would be added to the C.T..[23]

Also in 1917, it was decided that all directors were to be fitted with receivers and, "as far as possible", ships were to have fore top, G.C.T. and controlling turrets fitted to transmit as well as receive, though this was noted as being impossible in some earlier ships. While it would have been nice to have the C.T. able to transmit bearings to the 6-in guns, it was decided not to do this for reasons of space.[24]

Rangefinders

As completed, she had eight rangefinders: one in each turret, one in the fore top, one in an armoured hood forward, and one in the torpedo control tower.[25]

The rangefinder in Canada's T.C.T. sat on an M.Q. 10 mounting.[26]

In 1917 or 1918, Canada's T.C.T. rangefinder was replaced by a longer base length model,[27] and by 1918, two additional 9-foot instruments were provided for torpedo control, being placed abreast the compass platform.[28]

Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter

At some point, Canada was likely equipped with four Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter Mark IIs:

  • one on each side of the foretop, driven by flexible shafting from the Evershed rack on the director
  • one on each side of the Gun Control Tower employing an electrical F.T.P. system.

As the need for such gear was apparently first identified in early 1916, it seems likely that these installations were effected well after Jutland.[29][Inference]

In 1917, it was decided that these should probably all have mechanical links from the director and pointers indicating the aloft Evershed's bearing.[30]

Gunnery Control

Control Positions

In 1917, it was decided that Canada could better work her 6-in guns from the fore top, and this position was to receive combined range and deflection repeat receivers, one on each side and wired to the 6-in circuits to serve as the primary control positions.[31]

Directors

Main Battery

Between May and December, 1915[32] she was fitted with two cam-type, tripod-mounted directors, one in an armoured tower and one in a light aloft tower,[33] as well as a directing gun in "X" turret.[34][35]

The turret Elevation Receivers were pattern number H. 3, capable of matching the 15 degrees elevation limits of the mountings. The Training Receivers were the double dial type, pattern number 12.[36]

Secondary Battery

Her 6-in guns were supported by a pair of pedestal-mounted directors[37] added in February, 1918.[38]. These were situated on port and starboard forward.[39] These guns were operated in locally or under the director on their side; there was no C.O.S. permitting other modes of director control.

The Elevation Receivers were 6-in P. VII Type with electrical tilt correctors, Pattern H. 22. They could indicate elevations up to 15 degrees. The Small Type Training Receivers were pattern number 18.[40]

Torpedo Control

Eagle's arrangements are covered on her ship page, given her divergent nature from her nominal sister.

Between late 1915 and mid 1917, Canada[Fact Check] was fitted with a Torpedo Control Plotting Instrument Mark II in the TCT.[41]

By 1917-1918, a number of common Torpedo Control equipment packages were to be provided to those ships not already sporting them. Those for the 21-in torpedo ships follow.

Torpedo Control Data between C.T. and T.C.T..[42]

The data instruments to be wired between C.T. and T.C.T. to share range, order and deflection data provided a single deflection transmitter in the T.C.T. so that the results of the torpedo plot to be sent to the single deflection receiver in the C.T. for the information of the Torpedo Control Officer. Conversely, a combined range and deflection transmitter forward allowed the T.C.O. to send back the deflection and intended firing range to the secondary T.C.O. in the T.C.T..[43]

Torpedo Control Evershed[44]

The 21-in torpedo ships were also to be provided with Evershed transmitters in the C.T. and a receiver at the torpedo rangefinder in the T.C.T. in order to ensure that it was obtaining data on the intended target. Limited "slit space" in the C.T. required that the customary binocular-based transmitters be foregone in favour of placing the transmitter on or below the floorboards and to drive it by a shaft from a Torpedo Deflection Sight Mark IV. A control key on the transmitter allowed it to indicate when it was controlling the remote rangefinder or not.[45]

Those ships in the First Battle Squadron, as was Canada, also were to receive bearing and inclination instruments between the C.T. and fore spotting top to allow the Torpedo Control Officer to send the target bearing to the spotting top so that men there could signal back the inclination of the target.[46]

Finally under the 1917-1918 mandate, sufficient instruments were to be provided to permit the Fore Bridge to communicate with the tubes.[47]

In mid-1920, it was decided that Canada should receive a Renouf Torpedo Tactical Instrument Type B.[48]

Transmitting Stations

Dreyer Table

Canada had a Mark IV* Dreyer Table,[49] and no Dreyer Turret Control Tables.[50]

Fire Control Instruments

In 1916, it was approved that the ship should have a range rate transmitter/receiver pair added between T.S. and spotting top for the main armament.[51]

See Also

Footnotes

  1. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 34.
  2. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 38.
  3. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 34.
  4. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 33.
  5. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 34.
  6. Commander Matthew Best's notebook. Liddle Collection. University of Leeds. RNMN/BEST. Box 1. Volume III.
  7. Jellicoe Papers. British Library. Add MS 49000. f. 217.
  8. Nicholson Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 214.
  9. The Navy List. (December, 1916). p. 392rr.
  10. Ley Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 74.
  11. The Navy List. (November, 1917). p. 392c.
  12. Williamson Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 22.
  13. Watson Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 272.
  14. The Navy List. (August, 1919). p. 750.
  15. The Sight Manual, 1916. pp. 4, 23-26, 28, 106, 108, 109, Plates 3-5.
  16. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 145.
  17. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1914. Plate 20.
  18. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 51.
  19. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 51.
  20. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 36.
  21. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 36. The meaning of this is not entirely clear from the source, but it appears to be the supply of torpedoes.
  22. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 75.
  23. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  24. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  25. Burt. British Battleships, p. 235.
  26. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 175.
  27. Burt. British Battleships, p. 240.
  28. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 177.
  29. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. pp. 25-6.
  30. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  31. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  32. The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in HM Ships, pp. 9-10.
  33. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 142.
  34. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 88.
  35. Burt. British Battleships, p. 235.
  36. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 144-6.
  37. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 143.
  38. The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in HM Ships, p. 16.
  39. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 91.
  40. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 145, 146.
  41. Handbook of Torpedo Control, 1916. p. 38.
  42. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 71.
  43. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (T.O. 29/17.).
  44. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 72.
  45. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 4585/17.) .
  46. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 3343/17.).
  47. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 1644/17, 3706/17.).
  48. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 119.
  49. Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. p. 3.
  50. Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. p. 3.
  51. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 145.

Bibliography

  • H.M.S. Vernon. (Jan 1916) Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. C.B. 1166. Copy 1025 at The National Archives. ADM 189/35.
  • Admiralty, Technical History Section (1919). The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in H.M. Ships. Vol. 3, Part 23. C.B. 1515 (23) now O.U. 6171/14. At The National Archives. ADM 275/19.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1914). Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. G. 01627/14. C.B. 1030. Copy 1235 at The National Archives. ADM 186/191.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1917). The Director Firing Handbook. O.U. 6125 (late C.B. 1259). Copy No. 322 at The National Archives. ADM 186/227.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1918). Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. C.B. 1456. Copy No. 10 at Admiralty Library, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.



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