Revenge Class Battleship (1914)

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Overview of 5 vessels
Citations for this data available on individual ship pages
Name Builder Laid Down Launched Completed Fate
Ramillies Beardmore 12 Nov, 1913 12 Sep, 1916 Sep, 1917 Sold 20 Feb, 1948
Resolution Palmer 29 Nov, 1913 14 Jan, 1915 7 Dec, 1916 Sold 5 May, 1948
Revenge Vickers 22 Dec, 1913 29 May, 1915 Mar, 1916 Sold 5 Sep, 1948
Royal Oak Devonport Royal Dockyard 15 Jan, 1914 17 Nov, 1914 May, 1916 Torpedoed 14 Oct, 1939
Royal Sovereign Portsmouth Royal Dockyard 15 Jan, 1914 29 Apr, 1915 May, 1916 Sold 5 Apr, 1949

Contents

Background

In June, 1913, the Cabinet decided that three ships of the programme for that year were to be accelerated.[1]

Machinery

Boilers

Engines

Generators

Two 175 kw oil generators and two 200 kw steam generators, with an additional 200 kw steam generator from 1916 or later.[2]

Radio

According to the ambitions of 1909, these ships had Service Gear Mark II wireless upon completion.[3]

Armament

Main Battery

This section is sourced by The Sight Manual, 1916 except where otherwise noted.[4]

The eight 15-in guns were Mark I, able to elevate 20 degrees and depress 5 degrees.

The sights were cam-worked and capable of 20 degrees elevation in all but Royal Sovereign, which was like the Queen Elizabeth class in being limited to 15 degrees but with her central sights having "20 degree super-elevation strips".

The deflection gearing constant was 56.25 with 1 knot being 2.56 arc minutes. Range drums were graduated for 2400 fps for full charge and 2025 fps for 34 charge, as well as for 6-pdr sub-calibre and .303-in aiming rifle. There were no half-charge drums provided. MV was corrected by adjustable scale plate and deflection calibrated for 2450 fps at 5000 yards. Drift was allowed for by effectively inclining the periscope carrier 2.5 degrees. The central sighting scopes were 61 inches above and 46 inches aside the bore, and the side scopes were 43 inches above and 51.5 inches aside. There was also a temperature corrector fitted.

The trainer's sight could be made a free sight by releasing a clamp; the trainer then could vary the scope in pitch by shoulder supports. O.O.Q. sights were fitted with settings for all but the .303-in aiming rifle.

Although the sights were FTP, the use of cams in the Range Master Transmitter indicates that the markings were not evenly spaced.[5]

The guns were capable of continual aim in all but heavy weather. Gunlayer and turret trainer each used a single hand wheel. Elevation was at 5 degrees per second was achieved by just a single revolution of the hand wheel.[6]

6-in Guns

The fourteen 6-in guns were Mark XII on P. IX mountings with (B) type sights.[7][8]

Deflection gearing constant was 53.7 and 1 knot equal to 2.68 arc minutes (2825 fps at 5000 yards). The range dials provided were full charge at 2750 fps, reduced charge at 2075 fps, 3-pdr sub-calibre, and 1-in and .303-in aiming rifles. Adjustable pointers permitted M.V. correction of +/- 150 fps. Drift correction was achieved by inclining the sight 1.75 degrees and by additionally setting 4 knots left deflection in reduced charge firings. The scopes were 19.5 inches above the bore.

The mountings could elevate 14 degrees and depress 7 degrees. The range dial was graduated to 14,100 yards, or 15deg 17' elevation, and the sights were limited to 16 degrees elevation. By 1919 at least, the sights, had super-elevation attachments.[9]

The sights were cam-worked with equal-spaced range dials and F.T.P. receivers; the eyepieces of the scopes coincided with the trunnion, reducing operator fatigue when tracking a target in roll. There was no "C" corrector fitted, but there were temperature and M.V. correctors.

After the Battle of Jutland, when alterations to increase protection forced weight-savings to compensate, the ammunition allotment for these guns was to be reduced to about 110 rounds per gun, perhaps by ceasing to use magazines and shellrooms other than the foremost one.[10]

Torpedoes

  • Four Service Bar 21-in submerged broadside tubes depressed 2 degrees and bearing 90 degrees.[11]

In 1917, these tubes were firing 21-in Mark IV torpedoes.[12]

Fire Control

There is an extensive set of diagrams and description of the fire control outfits of these ships in the Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915.

Range Dials

As of 1920, all five ships were equipped with a Range Dial Type A and a Type F.[13]

Rangefinders

The ships completed with 15-ft rangefinders in their G.C.T.s and in all turrets and a 9-ft F.T. 24 on an M.Q. 10 mounting in the T.C.T..[14][15][16][17]

Sometime, likely not before 1918, the T.C.T. R.F.s were to be upgraded to 15-foot instruments, probably also F.T. 24, with new armoured hoods and racers and training driving the hood directly rather than through the rangefinder mounting. These rangefinders lacked hand-following gear to facilitate in transmission of range cuts, and when it was considered as an addition around 1917, space concerns were causing issues.[18] Resolution received her 15-ft instrument in 1918.[19]

By 1918, two additional 9-foot instruments were also to be provided for torpedo control. On Ramillies, these were situated on each side of the lower searchlight bridge, requiring manipulating hut #1 to be resited forward and its roof lowered a bit. On the other ships, the RFs were placed on either side of the upper searchlight structure, inboard of #3 searchlight.[20]

Around 1918, the envisioned rangefinder outfit generally resembled this, but it would take some time to institute:[21]

  • Two 30-ft in "B" and "X" turrets
  • Two 15-ft in "A" and "Y" turrets
  • Two 15-ft in T.C.T. and G.C.T.
  • One 12-ft in spotting top
  • Two 9-ft in fore bridge or platforms abreast funnels (probably the torpedo control ones)
  • One 2m F.T. 29[22] high-angle RF on roof of control top

The move to upgrade some turret R.F.s to 30-ft models was achieved slowly, as was the addition of small rangefinders aft situated between searchlight towers for help in ranging on a consort astern to assist in accurate Concentration Firing.[23]

Ship 30-ft on "B" 30-ft on "X" small R.F.(s) aft
Revenge 1918 1918 2 in 1919-21
Royal Sovereign Sep 1922 1919-21 1 in 1918 (removed Sep 1922)
Ramillies 1918? 1919-21?
Royal Oak 1919-21? June 1924? 2 in 1919-21
Resolution 1919-21 1 in 1919-21

Some R.F.s were removed from Resolution and Revenge in 1924.[24]

Phones

Main Battery

All phones for the main battery fire control was based on Pattern 333X Navyphones.[25]

The 15-in T.S. had an exchange board in communication with the ship's main navyphone exchange board. It had four exchange navyphones wired up to it, allowing them to converse with the following remote navyphones:

"Order" navyphones in:

  • "A" turret
  • "B" turret
  • "X" turret
  • "Y" turret
  • G.C.T.
  • Spotting top
  • "A" turret (fall of shot)

"Control" navyphones in:

  • Gun control tower
  • "X" turret

"Director fire" navyphones in:

  • "X" turret (which had a directing gun)
  • Light aloft director tower
  • Armoured director tower

"Range" navyphones in:

  • Spotting top
  • G.C.T.
  • "A" turret
  • "B" turret
  • "X" turret
  • "Y" turret

In addition to the four general-use navyphones in the 15-in T.S., the remote "range" navyphones in the turrets could also be directly addressed via four Pattern 3334 Navyphones wired into the TS's exchange board. A multiple plug permitted one of these to address all four turrets at once, if desired. Additionally, a navyphone in the conning tower was also connected to this exchange board.

Lastly, "X" turret's working space had a navyphone to the 15-in T.S., working off a battery.[26]

By mid-1918, it was approved to fit Pattern 3331 Navyphones with loud-sounding bells in the auxiliary machinery compartments of Lion and Orion classes and later where existing navyphones have proven ineffective.[27]

Secondary Battery

Navyphones for 6-in Battery[28]

Each 6-in gun control tower, port and starboard had a Pattern 3331 Navyphone wired directly to the 3 groups' C.O.S. on its side. In the 6-in TS, six Pattern 3332 Navyphones were wired directly to their own group C.O.S., which each had 2 positions:

  1. 6-in G.C.T. to all guns of its broadside
  2. T.S. group navyphone to its own group

The T.S. phones had switches which permitted one phone to pass orders to the whole broadside. Each officer of group had a Pattern 3333 Navyphone, and each gun was equipped with telaupads. Lastly, each 6-in gun director tower had a Pattern 3330 Navyphone wired directly to a Pattern 3332 Navyphone in the T.S..[29]

Evershed Bearing Indicators

15-in Evershed Installation[30]
6-in Evershed Installation[31]

All five units were fitted with this equipment, at least for main and secondary batteries.

In 1917, it was approved that capital ships of Dreadnought class and later should have Evershed equipment added to their C.T., able to communicate with either the fore top or the G.C.T.. If there were not enough room in the C.T., a bearing plate with open sights and 6-power binoculars would be added to the C.T..

Also in 1917, it was decided that all directors were to be fitted with receivers and, "as far as possible", ships were to have fore top, G.C.T. and controlling turrets fitted to transmit as well as receive, though this was noted as being impossible in some earlier ships. While it would have been nice to have the C.T. able to transmit bearings to the 6-in guns, it was decided not to do this for reasons of space.[32]

Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter

At some point, all ships in this class were equipped with four Mark II Mechanical Aids-to-Spotter:

  • one on each side of the foretop, driven by flexible shafting from the Evershed rack on the director
  • one on each side of the G.C.T. employing an electrical F.T.P. system.

As the need for such gear was apparently first identified in early 1916, it seems likely that these installations were effected well after Jutland.[33]

In 1917, it was decided that these should probably all have mechanical links from the director and pointers indicating the aloft Evershed's bearing.[34]

Gunnery Control

The control arrangements were almost certainly developed along lines similar to the King George V class, outlined here as follows.[Inference]

Control Positions

The main battery was controlled from:

  • G.C.T.
  • "B" turret
  • "X" turret

In 1917, it was decided that these ships could better work their 6-in guns from the fore top, and these positions were to receive combined range and deflection repeat receivers, one on each side and wired to the 6-in circuits so they could serve as the primary control positions.[35]

Control Groups

Main Battery
Diagram of 15-in Fire Control[36]
Notice the new "Fall of Shot" instruments, which seem to be a new development.

The four 15-in turrets were each a separate group with a local C.O.S. so that it could be connected to

  • Transmitting Station
  • Local control from officer's position within turret
Secondary Battery
Diagram of 6-in Fire Control[37]
Notice the new "Fall of Shot" instruments, which seem to be a new development.

The secondary battery fire control was very similar to arrangements in Queen Elizabeth, but with fourteen rather than sixteen 6-in guns which were divided into 3 groups on each broadside:[38]

  1. 2 guns
  2. 3 guns
  3. 2 guns

The transmitting sources illustrated in the Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915 are quite lavish and indicate a strong belief in the value of the secondary battery.[39] Each of the 3 groups, port and starboard (6 in all), received its range, deflection and firing signals from one of 4 sources:

  1. from its own transmitter kit the TS (6 there, dedicated to group)
  2. a similar but not identical broadside transmitter kit located in the 6-in gun control tower (2 there, dedicated to broadside)
  3. a Spartan alternative control position "A" in the spotting top (2 there, dedicated to broadside)
  4. a Spartan alternative control position "B" elsewhere (6 there, dedicated to group)

Each of the 6 groups had a 4-way C.O.S. in the T.S. to determine which source would inform the guns of its group.

The C.O.S.es each had a combined range and deflection receiver monitoring its output indications for use as a tally and also as a repeat to the use of the group's transmitter in the T.S.. Those 6 group transmitting kits were capable of generating range, deflection and firing signals. The range and deflection were entered by hand crank, and the operator used the combined tally device to know what value was going out.

The 2 broadside transmitter kits in the 6-in G.C.T. were the most elaborate, as they each had a Vickers range clock to supply its range data. Otherwise, they were similar to the group kits in the T.S. below.

Alternative control position "A" had 2 small transmitting kits, one for each broadside. These were more Spartan than the main ones as they had no range clock and substituted a range transmitter and a deflection transmitter, each with an integral repeat. The outputs fed all 6 group C.O.S.es in the T.S..

Alternative position "B" was more extensively furnished as it had 6 of these Spartan kits, one for each group. The output of each was fed directly to the C.O.S. for its group in the 6-in T.S. below. .[40]

A fall-of-shot transmitter in the spotting top worked receivers in each 6-in gun control tower.[41]

Directors

Main Battery

15-in Director Firing Circuits[42]
These details probably varied little in other capital ships with directors.[Inference]
15-in Director Training and Elevation Circuits[43]
These details probably varied little in other capital ships with directors.[Inference] The C.O.S. in the T.S. is the same as that shown in the previous figure of firing circuits.

These ships were completed with two cam-type tripod-mounted directors, one in an armoured tower and one in a light aloft tower,[44] as well as a directing gun in the "X" turret.[45]

The battery's fire could be divided into fore ("A" & "B") and aft ("X" & "Y") groups, with a C.O.S. in the T.S. affording these options:[46][47]

  1. all on aloft director
  2. all on armoured director
  3. all on directing gun
  4. forward group on aloft director, aft group on armoured director
  5. forward group on armoured director, aft group on directing gun

The main and auxiliary firing circuits had paired pistols in all three director positions, and were wired through the same C.O.S. as the training and elevating circuits. In the turret's firing circuits fed a "trainer's switch", which could be "on" or "off", and then to a 3-way C.O.S. at each gun to select which director firing circuit was tied to which gun firing circuit:

  1. main on main, aux on aux
  2. main on aux, aux on main (crossover)
  3. local firing circuits
Henderson Gear[48]
Wiring as in the Queen Elizabeth and Revenge classes.
Sometime in 1916 or thereafter, it was likely that the directors in these ships were augmented by the addition of Henderson Firing Gear.[49]

The turret Elevation Receivers were Pattern H. 5, capable of 20 degrees elevation. The Training Receivers were the double dial type, pattern number 9.[50]

Secondary Battery

Diagram of 6-in Director Firing Circuits[51]
This is for the similar Queen Elizabeth class — note more pertinent images below for possible differences.

The 6-in broadside guns were supported by a pair of pedestal-mounted directors, installed in March and April 1917, except in in Ramillies (June 1918).[52] These were situated to port and starboard on her forward superstructure. There were no options to use a director other than the one on the given broadside. The firing circuits were similarly straightforward, with each gun and director having a C.O.S. offering probably the same options as for the main battery guns:[53]

  1. main on main, aux on aux
  2. main on aux, aux on main (crossover)
  3. local firing circuits

Queen Elizabeth's systems were noted as being quite similar.[54]

6-in Elevation and Training Circuits[55]
6-in Firing Circuits[56]

The Elevation Receivers on the guns were 6-in P. VIII Type with electrical tilt correctors, Pattern F.C. 1, capable of 14 degrees elevation. The Small Type Training Receivers were pattern number 18.[57]

Transmitting Stations

There were separate T.S.es for 15-in and 6-in batteries.[58]

The 6-in T.S.'s arrangement is illustrated in the control section above.

Dreyer Table

These ships each had a Mark IV* Dreyer Table (though it is possible Ramillies had a Dreyer Table Mark V).[59] At some point, the ships each received Dreyer Turret Control Tables, but it is unclear when and whether each turret received one or simply the two control position turrets.[60]

Fire Control Instruments

It is likely that the ships continued the pattern first established in the Colossus class, all 5 units used Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range and deflection instruments to the gun sights and Barr and Stroud (probably Mark II*[Inference]) instruments for other purposes.[61]

The ships had Gun Ready signals in the T.S. and control positions, but had no Target Visible signals.[62]

In 1916, it was approved that the ships should have a range rate transmitter/receiver pair between TS and spotting top for the main armament. Additionally, it was ordered that Lion and King George V classes and later should receive instruments such that the fore top could be interchangeable as a gun control position with the GCT.[63]

The ships had a pair of Dumaresq Mark VII*s, one on each side, with bearing transmitters and handles to work them. These were the sources of the relative bearings sent below to the Dreyer table in the T.S.. Beneath these were situated Repeaters, which indicated the inclination, enemy course, enemy speed and range rate in use in the T.S..[64]

Torpedo Control

As the diagram in Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915 shows, control could be exercised from either the aft torpedo control tower or the conning tower, and each tube had a set of instruments for communicating with each, obviating the need for a change-over switch.

In 1916, arrangements were to be made that all capital ships with 21-in torpedoes were to receive transmitters and receivers so that the T.C.T. could pass the plotted torpedo deflection to the C.T., which could then use a reciprocal set of equipment to send the T.C.T. a deflection to be placed on the sight and range to open fire.[65]

By mid 1917, if not at completion, the ships were fitted with a Torpedo Control Plotting Instrument Mark II in the T.C.T..[66]

Diagram of Torpedo Control[67]
Notice the duplicate instruments at each tube, one to each control position. Course and speed information could be supplied from the 15-in T.S., and the G.C.T.'s rangefinder was wired to provide range data.
Diagram of Torpedo Control[68]

By 1917-1918, a number of common Torpedo Control equipment packages were to be provided to those ships not already sporting them. Those for the 21-in torpedo ships follow.

Torpedo Control Data between C.T. and T.C.T..[69]

The data instruments to be wired between C.T. and T.C.T. to share range, order and deflection data provided a single deflection transmitter in the T.C.T. so that the results of the torpedo plot to be sent to the single deflection receiver in the C.T. for the information of the Torpedo Control Officer. Conversely, a combined range and deflection transmitter forward allowed the T.C.O. to send back the deflection and intended firing range to the secondary T.C.O. in the T.C.T..[70]

Torpedo Control Evershed[71]

The 21-in torpedo ships were also to be provided with Evershed transmitters in the C.T. and a receiver at the torpedo rangefinder in the T.C.T. in order to ensure that it was obtaining data on the intended target. Limited "slit space" in the C.T. required that the customary binocular-based transmitters be foregone in favour of placing the transmitter on or below the floorboards and to drive it by a shaft from a Torpedo Deflection Sight Mark IV. A control key on the transmitter allowed it to indicate when it was controlling the remote rangefinder or not.[72]

Those ships in the First Battle Squadron, as were these, also were to receive bearing and inclination instruments between the C.T. and fore spotting top to allow the Torpedo Control Officer to send the target bearing to the spotting top so that men there could signal back the inclination of the target.[73]

Finally under the 1917-1918 mandate, sufficient instruments were to be provided to permit the Fore Bridge to communicate with the tubes.[74]

In mid-1920, it was decided that each ship should receive a Renouf Torpedo Tactical Instrument Type B[75] and a single Torpedo Control Disc Mark III* with a pair of mounting brackets to be installed in her primary torpedo control position.[76]

Phones

The phones were generally Pattern 333X Navyphones, except that Pattern 2465 special transmitters wired in parallel to the navyphones were used from either torpedo control position when addressing tubes at the opposite end of the ship.[77]

In the torpedo control tower:

In the conning tower:

I infer from the lack of navyphones in the conning tower to reach the forward torpedo tubes that these might have enjoyed voicepipe connectivity.[Inference]

Alterations

In 1916, it was approved that an additional 200 kw steam dynamo be added to the Revenge, Queen Elizabeth, Renown and (possibly) Courageous and Furious classes, as the loss of any of the other four sets could impose an undue burden on the remaining generators, especially in a night action. Prior to the addition, the Revenge class could generate 750 kw, or 3,300 amperes.[78]

See Also

Footnotes

  1. "Naval Requirements, 1914-15." p. 3. The National Archives. CAB 37/119.
  2. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 120-121.
  3. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1908. Wireless Appendix, p. 13.
  4. The Sight Manual, 1916. pp. 20-22, 109.
  5. Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Apparatus, Mark IV, Sheet 23.
  6. Brooks. Dreadnought Gunnery. pp. 45-46. I am inferring performance.
  7. The Sight Manual, 1916. pp. 61-2, 110.
  8. I am inferring that these ships had type B sights and that the Queen Elizabeth class had type A, given the table on page 110 of The Sight Manual.
  9. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. p. 36.
  10. Grand Fleet Gunnery and Torpedo Orders. No. 167, part 5.
  11. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 36.
  12. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 61.
  13. Manual of Gunnery (Volume III) for His Majesty's Fleet, 1920. p. 44.
  14. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. drawing pp. 274-5.
  15. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 198.
  16. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 175.
  17. Inferences M.Q. 10 and F.T. 24
  18. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 198. (C.I.O. 481/17).
  19. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. p. 282.
  20. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 177.
  21. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. pp. 276-7, 282.
  22. length and type inferred from reported 6-ft 6-in base length and knowledge of B&S RFs.
  23. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. p. 282. The source is confusing on the 30-ft RFs.
  24. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. p. 282. The type is not mentioned.
  25. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 230.
  26. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 231.
  27. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 233.
  28. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 115.
  29. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 231.
  30. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 120.
  31. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 119.
  32. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  33. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. pp. 25-6.
  34. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  35. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  36. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 112.
  37. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 114.
  38. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 231.
  39. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 114.
  40. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 114.
  41. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 231.
  42. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 116.
  43. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 117.
  44. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 142.
  45. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 88, 142.
  46. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 88-9.
  47. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 232.
  48. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 87.
  49. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 152.
  50. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 144, 146.
  51. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 118.
  52. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. 191, p. 16.
  53. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 143, Plates 79 and 80.
  54. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 232.
  55. The Director Firing Handbook. Plate 79.
  56. The Director Firing Handbook. Plate 80.
  57. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 144, 146.
  58. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. pp. 230-1.
  59. Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. p. 3.
  60. Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. p. 3.
  61. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. pp. 72.
  62. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. p. 11.
  63. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 145.
  64. Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Apparatus, Mark IV, Sheet 19A.
  65. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 145.
  66. Handbook of Torpedo Control, 1916. p. 38.
  67. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 113.
  68. Handbook of Torpedo Control, 1916. Plate 28.
  69. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 71.
  70. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (T.O. 29/17.).
  71. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 72.
  72. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 4585/17.) .
  73. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 3343/17.).
  74. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 1644/17, 3706/17.).
  75. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 119.
  76. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 113.
  77. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 230.
  78. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 120-121.

Bibliography

  • Admiralty, Technical History Section (1919). The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in H.M. Ships. Vol. 3, Part 23. C.B. 1515 (23) now O.U. 6171/14. At The National Archives. ADM 275/19.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1914). Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. G. 01627/14. C.B. 1030. Copy 1235 at The National Archives. ADM 186/191.
  • Admiralty, Technical History Section (1919). The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in H.M. Ships. Vol. 3, Part 23. C.B. 1515 (23) now O.U. 6171/14. At The National Archives. ADM 275/19.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1917). The Director Firing Handbook. O.U. 6125 (late C.B. 1259). Copy No. 322 at The National Archives. ADM 186/227.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1918). Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. C.B. 1456. Copy No. 10 at Admiralty Library, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
  • H.M.S. Vernon. (Jan 1916) Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. C.B. 1166. Copy 1025 at The National Archives. ADM 189/35.
  • Raven, Alan; Roberts, John (1976). British Battleships of World War Two: The Development and Technical History of the Royal Navy's Battleships and Battlecruisers from 1911 to 1946. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-141-4.


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