Courageous Class Battlecruiser (1916)

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The Courageous class of warship consisted of two vessels, variously described as battle cruisers or large light cruisers, built for the Royal Navy between 1915 and 1916 at the behest of then-First Sea Lord Lord Fisher. After the Great War they were converted into aircraft carriers.

Overview of 2 vessels
Citations for this data available on individual ship pages
Name Builder Laid Down Launched Completed Fate
Courageous Armstrong, Elswick 28 Mar, 1915 5 Feb, 1916 Jan, 1917 Torpedoed 17 Sep, 1939
Glorious Harland & Wolff 1 May, 1915 20 Apr, 1916 Jan, 1917 Torpedoed 8 Jun, 1940

Contents

Design & Construction

In a letter to Eustace H. W. T. D'Eyncourt, Director of Naval Construction (D.N.C.), of 29 January, 1915, First Sea Lord Lord Fisher made mention of two large light cruisers:

I had a fierce time with the First Lord - Very fierce! but we are to have two 1 at H&W 1 at Elswick if only we can make out a good story for the Cabinet:
a) They must be both ready to fight within the year.
b) They must be said to cost quite approx in Round terms probably not more than a million but in view of the cost it is difficult to forecast what they will cost.
c) We must state that the construction of these two ships are (?)demanded by these two firms who can undertake them without interfering with current gov't work. For example riveters and such like today can't affect current work as these classes of workmen are only (?) required in the (?) initial (?) stages and cannot be turned into joiners or submarine work. The First Lord thinks you can be any d--d thing at any moment.
d) We must stick to it that draught of water will not exceed 22½ feet this is vital for Baltic work. It's on the Baltic undertaking (?) that he will carry them through in the Cabinet.
e) Speed 32 knots - don't say anything about being deep or light.
f) Enlarge on the unprecedented combination in one hull of 4 15 in guns 22½ feet draught of water & 32 knots speed with a radius of 11,000 miles and so small a personnel------- in lieu of 1,000 in the Derfflinger and the (?) 885 in the Moltke.
Please explain to Third Sea Lord.[1]

The then-Third Sea Lord, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral Sir) Frederick C. T. Tudor, later told a meeting of the Institution of Naval Architects:

The late Lord Fisher came into my room one day and said: "I have just been having a long talk with the Chancellor of the Exchequer." Mind you, this was very early in the war, when it was popularly believed that it was only going to last six months. "He has agreed to our building light craft to any extent we can up to a light cruiser." Lord Fisher added: "The Chancellor did not say how big the light cruisers could be, so we will build two whoppers, with 15-inch guns, and speed enough to run any German light cruiser off the face of the ocean."[2]

The relevant monograph of Records of Warship Construction During the War, prepared by the D.N.C.'s department, stated:

[There] was a further special need for some very high speed ships carrying powerful guns and able to navigate shallower waters than any existing British or enemy ships of the same class. As sanction had already been obtained for the construction of some light cruisers, and as there might have been difficulty in getting additional capital ships sanctioned, it was decided to build "Courageous" and "Glorious" on the lines of large light cruisers. They were therefore designed as very large light cruisers, mounting a few guns of heaviest calibre; very lightly armoured, but having a speed of not less than 32 knots, while the draught was restricted to between 21 and 22 feet, or about 5 feet less than any existing battleship or battle cruiser. The main armament of four 15-inch guns would be more than a match for any raider or light cruiser that might be encountered.[3]

The design of these ships began on 21 January, 1915, and the ships were ordered on 29 January. The first drawings and body plan were sent to Armstrong's, for Courageous, and Harland and Wolff, for Glorious, on 6 February. Legend was approved by the Board of Admiralty on 22 April, 1915, and drawings finished on 23 May.[4] The keel plate of Courageous was laid on 28 March and that of Glorious on 1 May. Courageous was launched on 5 February, 1916, and commissioned on 28 October, beginning her trials on 14 November. Glorious was launched on 20 April, 1916, commissioned on 14 October and began her trials on 23 October.[5]

Reactions

In mid-1917 Admiral The Honourable Sir Stanley C. J. Colville, Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth, mentioned in a letter to Admiral Sir Frederick T. Hamilton, Commander-in-Chief, Rosyth:

We have had Courageous here for months, she is indeed a rotten freak - draws 2 foot more water now - and I trust she won't break up in the first breeze of wind. She is an expensive mine layer, as is the Furious (with only one gun), an aerodrome.[6]

Machinery

Generators

One 175 kw oil generators and three 200 kw steam generators, possibly with an additional 200 kw steam generator from 1916 or later.[7]

Radio

These ships probably had Service Gear Mark II wireless upon completion.[8]

Armament

The ships were armed as follows.[9]

15-in Guns

The four 15-in guns were Mark I with sights capable of 20 degrees elevation.

The deflection gearing constant was 56.25 with 1 knot being 2.56 arc minutes. Range drums were graduated for 2400 fps for full charge and 2025 fps for 3/4 charge, as well as for 6-pdr sub-calibre and .303-in aiming rifle. There were no half-charge drums provided. MV was corrected by adjustable scale plate and deflection calibrated for 2450 fps at 5000 yards. Drift was allowed for by effectively inclining the periscope carrier 2.5 degrees. The central sighting scopes were 61 inches above and 46 inches aside the bore, and the side scopes were 43 inches above and 51.5 inches aside. There was also a temperature corrector fitted.

The trainer's sight could be made a free sight by releasing a clamp; the trainer then could vary the scope in pitch by shoulder supports. O.O.Q. Open Director Sights were fitted with settings for all but the .303-in aiming rifle.[10]

4-in Guns

  • eighteen 4-in 44.3cal B.L. Mark IX gun in six triple mountings

Other Guns

  • Two 3-in 20 cwt Mark I on H.A. mountings
  • Two 3-pdr

Torpedoes

  • Two 21-in submerged broadside tubes[11]

Originally, it had been planned to fit the ships with four 21-in above-water tubes fixed at 90 degrees with gyro angling pads for angled fire, but this appears to have been deferred until after completion.[12] In 1917, both ships were to have twelve such tubes added, with two pairs on the quarter deck and one on the main deck on each side, permitting them to fire a spread of seven to either broadside. There were no reloads for these tubes, and the submerged tubes had their torpedo outfits reduced from 10 to 7 as part of the same decision.[13][14]

The submerged tubes could not be fired at speeds over 31 knots, as the bar would bend.[15]

Fire Control

Range Dials

In 1918, it was ordered that these ships, and eleven classes of light cruisers should receive "range instruments for concentration of fire". Presumably, this meant range dials.[16]

Phones

Main Battery

There is significant information on this in Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915.[17] An exchange board was situated in the TS with four Pattern 3330 Navyphones for the local operators and a single line to the main telephone exchange. Additionally, a dedicated 3330 was wired directly to a Pattern 3331 Navyphone in "Y" turret's working space to convey orders. Two Pattern 3334 Navyphones went directly to "A" and "Y" for ranges.

Turrets:

  • One Pattern 3333 Navyphone with Telaupads for orders
  • Another 3333 with telaupads for spotting orders
  • One 3334 for ranges (presumably wired directly to the pair in the T.S.)

Spotting top:

  • One 3331 to torpedo control tower
  • One 3331 to main T.S. exchange for orders
  • One 3331 to main T.S. exchange for ranges

Light aloft director:

  • One 3331 with telaupads to T.S. for ranges
  • Another 3331 without telaupads to T.S. as "director firing navyphone"

Armoured director tower:

  • One 3331 with telaupads to T.S. as "director firing navyphone"

Gun control tower:

  • One 3331 to T.S. for ranges
  • One 3331 to T.S. for orders
  • One 3331 to T.S. as "control phone"
  • One 3331 to torpedo control tower

By mid-1918, it was approved to fit Pattern 3331 Navyphones with loud-sounding bells in the auxiliary machinery compartments of Lion and Orion classes and later where existing navyphones have proven ineffective.[18]

Secondary Battery

Navyphones for 4-in Battery[19]

The 4-in battery navyphones were supported by a small exchange in the T.S. with two 3330s for operators, as well as there being two pattern 3334s opposite the transmitters for groups 3 and 4. Each group of guns had one 3333 with three plug connectors for telaupads. The spotting top, forward and aft night defence positions each had two 3334s. Each director had a pattern 3331 with a plug connection for telaupads. In addition, the gun control tower had a 3331.[20]

Rangefinders

The rangefinder in the T.C.T. was initially a 9-foot F.T. 24 on an M.Q. 10 mounting, but apparently there were minor differences between the two ships in this regard, as the eventual upgrade to a 15-foot instrument required a slightly different treatment between the two.[21][22][23]

Sometime during or after 1917, these were to be upgraded to 15-foot instruments, probably also F.T. 24, with new armoured hoods and racers and training driving the hood directly rather than through the rangefinder mounting. These rangefinders lacked hand-following gear to facilitate in transmission of range cuts, and when it was considered as an addition around 1917, space concerns were causing issues.[24]

Evershed Bearing Indicators

Both ships were likely fitted with this equipment upon for main and secondary batteries.

The Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916 mentions that the similarities to the fittings in the Renown class are so complete (beyond obvious differences in number of turrets and mountings) that it declined to document them separately.[25]

In 1917, it was approved that capital ships of Dreadnought class and later should have Evershed equipment added to their C.T., able to communicate with either the fore top or the G.C.T.. If there were not enough room in the C.T., a bearing plate with open sights and 6-power binoculars would be added to the C.T.. At the same time, all directors were to be fitted with receivers and, "as far as possible", ships were to have fore top, G.C.T. and controlling turrets fitted to transmit as well as receive, though this was noted as being impossible in some earlier ships.[26]

Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter

At some point, both ships were likely equipped with four Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter Mark IIs:

  • one on each side of the foretop, driven by flexible shafting from the Evershed rack on the director
  • one on each side of the Gun Control Tower employing an electrical F.T.P. system.

As the need for such gear was apparently first identified in early 1916, it seems likely that these installations were effected well after Jutland.[27]

In 1917, it was decided that these should have mechanical links from the director and pointers indicating the aloft Evershed's bearing.[28]

Gunnery Control

These ships were well documented in Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915 along the following lines.[29]

Control Positions

Main battery:

  • Spotting top
  • Gunnery control tower
  • "Y" turret

Secondary battery:

  • Spotting top
  • Forward night defence shelter
  • After night defence shelter

Control Groups

Main Battery

Turrets "A" and "Y" were separate groups.

Secondary Battery

The 4-in guns were arranged entirely in triple mountings and in 4 groups, numbered 1 to 4. Groups 1 and 2 had a port and a starboard mounting.[30] This meant that the forward broadside-disposed triple mountings could not cleanly engaged targets on both broadsides while all enjoyed both director or instrument-based relay of ranges and deflections. It seems possible, however, that one side could be under director fire and the other under local laying firing with data supplied from the 4-in T.S..

Directors

Both ships were completed with directors for main and secondary batteries installed.[31]

Main Battery

These ships were completed with 2 cam-type, tripod-mounted directors, one in an armoured tower and one in a light aloft tower.[32] The battery was divisible into forward ("A" turret) and aft ("Y" turret) groups, and a C.O.S. in the T.S. allowed the following modes of control:[33]

  • All guns on aloft director
  • All guns on armoured director
  • Forward group on aloft director, aft on armoured director

The Training Receivers were the double dial type, pattern number 9.[34]

Secondary Battery

Directors for 4-in Battery[35]

The 4-in guns for both were supported by a pair of pedestal-mounted directors situated on the centre line, one forward and one aft.[36] The guns converged in training on the forward director; when the aft director was in use, it would itself be converged to the forward director to make it work right.[37] A C.O.S. in the T.S. allowed the following modes of control:[38][39]

  • All groups on forward director
  • All groups on aft director
  • Groups 1 & 2 on forward director, groups 3 & 4 on aft director

Each gun on a triple mounting had a 5-way C.O.S. for the firing circuit:[40]

  • local, simultaneous firing from any of the 3 sets of main or auxiliary firing keys
  • director firing by director main and aux on local main and aux
  • gunlayer individual firing
  • director firing main, and local firing aux
  • local simultaneous firing, but with main and aux crossed over

The Elevation Receivers were 4-in Triple Type, capable of 30 degrees elevation and Pattern H. 11. The Small Type Training Receivers were pattern number 20 on P1, P2, S1 and S2, whereas #3 and #4 had pattern number 21.[41]

Transmitting Stations

Dreyer Table

Each ship had a Mark IV* Dreyer Table, likely from completion, and at an unknown time, 1 (in "Y") or 2 (in "A" and "Y") Turret Control Tables.[42][Inference]

Fire Control Instruments

These ships were well documented in Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915 along the following lines.[43]

Main Battery

  • Spotting Top (control position):
    • Mark I Barr and Stroud fall-of-shot receiver wired from "A" turret
    • Mark I Barr and Stroud fall-of-shot receiver wired from "Y" turret
    • Captain's cease fire gong
    • Mark III Barr and Stroud single range transmitter with key
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range repeat receiver wired from "Out position" panel in T.S.
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III deflection repeat receiver wired from "Out position" panel in T.S.
  • Light aloft director tower:
    • Captain's cease fire gong
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range receiver wired from "Out position" panel in T.S.
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III deflection receiver wired from "Out position" panel in T.S.
  • Armoured director tower:
    • Captain's cease fire gong
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range receiver wired from "Y" turret panel in T.S.
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III deflection receiver wired from "Y" turret panel in T.S.
  • Gun control tower (control position):
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range repeat receiver wired from "Y" turret panel in T.S.
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III deflection repeat receiver wired from "Y" turret panel in T.S.
    • Barr and Stroud Mark III* range transmitter wired directly to receiver in T.S.
    • Barr and Stroud Mark IV bearing transmitter wired directly to receiver in T.S.
    • Captain's cease fire gong
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range receiver wired from "Y" turret panel in T.S.
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III deflection receiver wired from "Y" turret panel in T.S.
    • Barr and Stroud Mark I fall-of-shot receiver wired from "A" turret
    • Barr and Stroud Mark I fall-of-shot receiver wired from "Y" turret
  • Conning tower
    • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III[Inference] range repeat receiver wired from "Out position" panel in T.S.
    • Captain's cease fire gong push
  • Turrets ("Y" is a control position):
    • Barr and Stroud Mark I fall-of-shot transmitter to TS
    • Auto range transmitter for turret RF to TS
    • Barr and Stroud Mark IV Combined R.O.D. transmitter with tell-tale receiver to T.S. ("Y" only)
    • Fire push to TS ("Y" only)
    • Barr and Stroud Mark IV bearing transmitter to TS ("Y" only)
    • Barr and Stroud Mark III* rate transmitter to TS ("Y" only)
    • Barr and Stroud Mark III* rate receiver from TS (perhaps a repeat? "Y" only)
    • Captain's cease fire bell from TS
    • Barr and Stroud Mark IV bearing transmitter to TS
    • Local C.O.S. for O.O.Q.'s local control or TS control, connected to:
      • Vickers F.T.P. Mark IV range transmitter with repeat receiver in O.O.Q. position
      • Vickers F.T.P. Mark IV deflection transmitter with repeat receiver in O.O.Q. position
      • Fire push in O.O.Q. position
      • Barr and Stroud Mark III* single[Inference] order receiver in O.O.Q. position
      • Four Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range receivers at sighting positions
      • Four Vickers F.T.P. Mark III deflection receivers at sighting positions
  • Main Battery TS:
    • Three panels ("A", "Y", and 'Out') each with:
      • Vickers F.T.P. Mark IV* range transmitter w/ Mark III repeat receiver
      • Vickers F.T.P. Mark IV* deflection transmitter w/ Mark III repeat receiver
      • Barr and Stroud Mark III* single order transmitter ("A" and "Y" only)
      • N.B.: the 'Out' panel's range and deflection transmitters feed Vickers F.T.P Mark III repeats in the 4-in T.S.
    • Two Barr and Stroud Mark IV bearing receivers from "Y" and G.C.T.
    • Two Barr and Stroud Mark III* rate receivers (from "Y" and G.C.T. "through a 2 way C.O.S. giving either T.S. panel or plotting table.")
    • Two rate transmitters to "A" and "Y" turrets
    • Four Barr and Stroud Mark III single range receivers from "A","Y", spotting top and G.C.T.
    • Two Barr and Stroud Mark I[Inference] fall-of-shot receivers from "A" and "Y"
    • Barr and Stroud Mark III Combined receiver (from "Y"[Inference])
    • Buzzer

Secondary Battery

  • Upper conning tower:
    • Captain's cease fire push
  • Spotting Top (control position):
    • Two portable Vickers F.T.P. combined range and deflection transmitters with repeat receivers to C.O.S. for groups 1 & 2 in 4-in T.S.
    • Wired to a distribution box in the 4-in T.S. thence to C.O.S. for each group:
      • Fire gong pushes (one for each group? likely only groups 1 and 2 -- see below)
      • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range repeat receiver
      • Vickers F.T.P. Mark III deflection repeat receiver
      • Vickers F.T.P. Mark IV* deflection transmitter
      • Range clock
      • Captain's cease fire gong
  • Forward night defence position (control position serving groups 1 & 2, port and starboard):
    • Two portable Vickers F.T.P. combined range and deflection transmitters with repeat receivers and fire pushes to C.O.S. in 4-in T.S.
    • Two-pin plug to connect to Captain's cease fire push
  • After night defence position (control position serving groups 3 & 4):
    • Two portable Vickers F.T.P. combined range and deflection transmitters with repeat receivers and fire pushes to C.O.S. in 4-in T.S.
  • Forward 4-in gun director tower:
    • One continuous-ringing fire gong (from group 1, P & S in T.S.)
    • Two combined range and deflection repeat receivers (from group 1, P & S in T.S.)
    • Captain's cease-fire gong
  • After 4-in gun director tower:
    • Vickers (F.T.P.?) Mark III range receiver from group 3's instruments in T.S.
    • Vickers (F.T.P.?) Mark III deflection receiver from group 3's instruments in T.S.
    • Captain's cease-fire gong
  • 4-in TS:
    • Four sets of instruments to address groups 1 through 4:
      • Vickers Mark IV* range transmitter (Mark III receiver arranged on gun side of C.O.S. as repeat)
      • Vickers Mark IV* deflection transmitter (Mark III receiver arranged on gun side of C.O.S. as repeat)
      • Fire gong push
    • Two 4-way C.O.S. for groups 1 and 2, port and starboard:
      • T.S. instrument control
      • forward night defence shelter
      • spotting top
      • range clock in spotting top
    • Two 3-way C.O.S. for groups 3 and 4:
      • T.S. instruments control
      • after night defence shelter
      • range clock in spotting top

Torpedo Control

By 1917-1918, a number of common Torpedo Control equipment packages were to be provided to those ships not already sporting them. Those for the 21-in torpedo ships follow.

Torpedo Control Data between C.T. and T.C.T..[44]

The data instruments to be wired between C.T. and T.C.T. to share range, order and deflection data provided a single deflection transmitter in the T.C.T. so that the results of the torpedo plot to be sent to the single deflection receiver in the C.T. for the information of the Torpedo Control Officer. Conversely, a combined range and deflection transmitter forward allowed the T.C.O. to send back the deflection and intended firing range to the secondary T.C.O. in the T.C.T..[45]

Torpedo Control Evershed[46]

The 21-in torpedo ships were also to be provided with Evershed transmitters in the C.T. and a receiver at the torpedo rangefinder in the T.C.T. in order to ensure that it was obtaining data on the intended target. Limited "slit space" in the C.T. required that the customary binocular-based transmitters be foregone in favour of placing the transmitter on or below the floorboards and to drive it by a shaft from a Torpedo Deflection Sight Mark IV. A control key on the transmitter allowed it to indicate when it was controlling the remote rangefinder or not.[47]

Finally under the 1917-1918 mandate, sufficient instruments were to be provided to permit the Fore Bridge to communicate with the tubes.[48]

In 1917, when it was still envisaged that the ships would have six fixed A.W tubes firing to each broadside, the compass platform was to replace the C.T. as the forward control position and have all the control instruments. A system of lamp signals was to be used in lieu of order instruments between bridge, T.C.T. and A.W. tubes for "Stand by" and "Ready", with standard gyro angle instruments being used between control positions and tubes.[49]

In mid-1920, it was decided that Furious should receive one Renouf Torpedo Tactical Instrument Type B and that Glorious should receive two of the same.[50] A year later, it appears that Glorious was to receive just a single one.[51]

In mid-1920, it was envisaged that each ship should receive a single Torpedo Control Disc Mark III* and a pair of mounting brackets to be installed in their primary torpedo control position.[52]

Alterations

In 1916, it was approved that an additional 200 kw steam dynamo be added to the Revenge, Queen Elizabeth, Renown and (possibly) Courageous and Furious classes, as the loss of any of the other four sets could impose an undue burden on the remaining generators, especially in a night action. Prior to the addition, the Courageous class could generate 775 kw, or 3,400 amperes.[53]

See Also

Footnotes

  1. Quoted in McBride. "Note: Fisher's Follies; Their Real Origin?". The Mariner's Mirror. 76 (1990): 2. p. 134.
  2. Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects. LXIII. p. 34. Copy of the relative discussion courtesy of Mr. Andrew J. F. Smith.
  3. "Large Light Cruisers 'Courageous' & 'Glorious.' 'Furious.'" The National Archives. ADM 1/8547/430. f. 2.
  4. "Large Light Cruisers 'Courageous' & 'Glorious.' 'Furious.'" ADM 1/8547/430. ff. 3-4.
  5. "Large Light Cruisers 'Courageous' & 'Glorious.' 'Furious.'" ADM 1/8547/430. f. 4.
  6. Letter of 16 April, 1917. Hamilton Papers. National Maritime Museum. HTN/117/A.
  7. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 120-121.
  8. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1908. Wireless Appendix, p. 13.
  9. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 39.
  10. The Sight Manual, 1916. pp. 20-22, 109.
  11. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 39.
  12. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 35.
  13. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. pp. 24, 208.
  14. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 40.
  15. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 35. (T.O. 145/1916; C.I.O. 1449 of 1917) Conway's mentions a limit of 23 knots.
  16. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 376. (C.I.O. 3492/18, N.S. 11226/18).
  17. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 239.
  18. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 233.
  19. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 122.
  20. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 240.
  21. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 198.
  22. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 175.
  23. Inferences M.Q. 10 and F.T. 24
  24. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 198. (C.I.O. 481/17).
  25. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 146.
  26. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  27. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. pp. 25-6.
  28. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  29. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. pp. 236-242.
  30. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 123.
  31. The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in HM Ships, pp. 9-11, 16.
  32. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 142.
  33. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 89.
  34. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 145, 146.
  35. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. Plate 123.
  36. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 143.
  37. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 35.
  38. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 91.
  39. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 239.
  40. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 239.
  41. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 145, 146.
  42. Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. p. 3.
  43. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. pp. 236-240.
  44. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 71.
  45. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (T.O. 29/17.).
  46. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 72.
  47. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 4585/17.) .
  48. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 1644/17, 3706/17.).
  49. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208.
  50. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 119.
  51. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1920. pp. 90-1.
  52. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 113.
  53. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 120-121.

Bibliography

  • Admiralty, Technical History Section (1919). The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in H.M. Ships. Vol. 3, Part 23. C.B. 1515 (23) now O.U. 6171/14. At The National Archives. ADM 275/19.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1917). The Director Firing Handbook. O.U. 6125 (late C.B. 1259). Copy No. 322 at The National Archives. ADM 186/227.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1918). Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. C.B. 1456. Copy No. 10 at Admiralty Library, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
  • H.M.S. Vernon. (Jan 1916) Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. C.B. 1166. Copy 1025 at The National Archives. ADM 189/35.


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